Year I, July – December 2016, 3 – 4

Editorial

Beteja për kulturën

Full text

Natyra përballë kulturës – përmes kësaj dialektike e mendonin zhvillimin e njeriut të qytetnuem mendimtarët e kohës moderne. Ajo çka na ka dhanë natyra duhet përpunue, kajherë edhe tejkalue me mund të madh, për me krijue diçka të re që nuk asht e dhanun vetiut por duhet krijue prej nesh. Procesi nepërmjet të cilit njeriu naltohet tue u shkëputë prej gjendjes së tij natyrale dhe nevojave imediate, shenjon në çdo fotogram të tijin nivelin e kulturës që ai ka mbërrit me krijue. Raporti mes natyrës dhe kulturës asht i ngjashëm me atë ndërmjet gurores ku nxirret mermeri dhe tempujve antikë, mes ngyrave të perëndimit dhe nji tabloje të Caspar David Friedrich apo Claude Monet. Natyra pa kulturën asht memece edhe pse vetvetijshëm dëshmon nji pasuni të madhe, ndërsa kultura i jep asaj shpirt dhe e afron me njeriun tue e naltue. Zogjtë fishkullojnë, vetëm njeriu këndon, pohonte J. J. Rousseau. Nji malsor, tue aludue për pasuninë e gjuhës, gojdhanave, folklorit, i thonte njiherë nji mësuesi të ri: na jena si zogjtë në pemë zotni, këndojmë por s’e dijmë se çka thona! 

Natyra s’ka vetëdije, ka vetëm energji e potencialitet. Asht domethanës dhe njikohsisht trishtues fakti se tek ne të huejt vijnë vetëm për me kundrue natyrën e pothuejse asgja tjetër tonën! Sot kemi për detyrë me nisë nji betejë për kulturën, pse zhdukja e kulturës së vërtetë e moskultivimi i saj ndër ne rrezikon me shkatrrue edhe natyrën dhe me na shkimë përgjithmonë.

Kjo betejë duhet të përfshijë kulturën në kuptimin subjektiv të saj, si proces i pafund i zhvillimit dhe i formimit të pandalshëm të njeriut, si rruga për me mësue sesi me qenë njerëz, kështu e ka përçansue filozofi H. G. Gadamer.

Në anën tjetër beteja synon me përtri edhe rrafshin objektiv të kulturës, të marrun si shumësi formash, mjetesh, si pasuni e shtresëzueme në ndërgjegjen kolektive, tue përfshi institucionet tradicionale që e mbarështojnë dhe e përcjellin atë nga nji brez në tjetrin. Mbrenda Republikës sonë ashtu siç ka institucione që përfaqsojnë antikulturën, ka edhe njerëz të institucioneve dhe të politikës që kultivojnë antikulturën. Dhuna, korrupsioni, mashtrimi, shfrytzimi i njeriut, abuzimi me zyrën shtetnore, shpifja, demagogjia janë dhambët e prehte që antikultura ngul përditë në indet e kombit.

Qysh prej antikitetit njihet fuqia formësuese e kulturës. Përballë saj qëndron nji forcë e errtë, përqafimi i së cilës shndrron në qenie amorfe individët dhe shoqninë. Prandaj prej kohnave antike kultura ka qenë e lidhun me paideia-n (παιδεία). Skaji asht grek dhe shenjon dinamikat këndellëse të edukimit të shtresave të ndryshme tue nisë prej gjymtyrëve ma të thjeshta e tue përfundue te ata që drejtojnë shtetin. Paideia, kultura, nënkuptojnë nji energji që ka për qëllim me sendërtue (realizue)  njeriun dhe me e naltue atë tue e harmonizue me shoqninë. Përgjatë pesë shekujsh ecejake pa krye, primitiviteti ynë natyral u shoqnue me barbarinë e pushtuesit, herë tue u shty e herë tue u ndërthurë bindshëm me të. Pa arsim dhe pa shkolla, pa alfabet mbarëkombëtar, pa pamvarsi, pa ndjesina të mirëfillta etike, të panjohtun e të izoluem prej botës së qytetnueme – shumica jonë u pështjellue e ra në nji letargji që gati na mbyti po të mos na zgjonte trumpeta e rilindasve tanë. Me gjetë shtegun e kulturës për ne domethanë me rizbulue konvergjencat shpirtnore me humanizmin si rrymë dhe si filozofi, me kthye në nji hulli që historia na e mohoi edhe pse etnit dhe pararendësit e kulturës sonë: Gjon Gazulli, Marin Barleci, Mikel Maruli, Leonik Tomeu, Marin Beçikemi, e lavruen njizanit me sivëlleznit e tyne europian.

Njerzit e kulturës tek ne kanë qenë gjithmonë zanoret e diskursin shpirtnor të kombit, të vetmit që kanë mundësue shqiptimin dhe kuptueshmërinë e qenjes sonë. Sot po përsëriten të njejtat rekurse historike: injoranca, letargjia, paaftësia me u vetëqeverisë, pandjeshmënia morale e indiferenca e thellë ndaj fateve tona. Të gjithë ecin përpara, veç ne e pak të tjerë mbesim vendnumro. Krenohena krejt kot me të kaluemen kur s’jemi të zot me ba asgja me të tashmen tonë!

Kryekreje kemi nevojë me u edukue me kulturën e të qenit të lirë. Nuk asht i lirë zogu i malit thjesht për faktin që s’ndodhet i ndrymë në nji flanikth. Ketë gja e dishmon ma së mirit fakti se ramja e komunizmit tek ne nuk solli lirinë, por mundësinë me qenë të lirë. Për fatin e keq tonin kjo mundësi shkoi dam pse në krye të punëve lejuem demagogët, hajnat dhe kriminelat.

I lirë asht ai që ban të vetin shpirtin e ligjit dhe e pranon atë me vetëdije. Kemi nevojë për kulturën e punës, të dialogut e të komunikimit të sinqertë, për kulturën e së bukurës, për kulturën e faljes dhe të drejtësisë, dhe mbi të gjitha për kulturën e kërkimit të së vërtetës.

Këtu nji rol me randësi e lot edhe tradita. Jo thjesht ajo që trajtohet prej historiografisë si gur kilometrik, pra diçka që i pranohet vlera statike; na duhet kryekreje tradita si frymë që ripërtrihet pa pushim. Tradita e vërtetë nuk i përket së kaluemes, por së ardhmes, pse asht e aftë me e pllenue atë pa ia pengue rritjen për hatër të asaj që ka qenë. Në epokën e globalizimit edhe problemi i vjetër i raportit mes elitave dhe masave ka marrë nji kuptim tjetër. Tek ne elitat e mbetuna prej kohës së komunizmit si edhe ato që u formuen në kushte tranzicionit pak a shumë me “shkolla plepash”, treguen se tërhiqen manjetikisht prej të njejtave pasione e dëshira që drejtojnë masat. Elitat tona mjerane janë ba sukull për qentë e shumtë të tranzicionit, tue humbë besueshmëninë dhe tue tradhtue misionin e tyne.

Sot kemi fabrika universitare elitash, kemi elita facebook-u dhe elita blogjesh pak a shumë anonime që homogjenizojnë dhe përhapin me virulencë çdo gja banale që ekziston. Kemi masa hijeranda landore që u duket se kanë pi tanë pusin e dijes, kemi ateista që mohojnë Zotin tue ia shkrue emnin me të vogël, dumbabista që përdorin web-in si me qenë teh shpatet, poetë që duhet me ua stenografue vargjet, analista që shesin kandila që bajnë veç tym, kemi intelektualë as mish as peshk që meritojnë me ua shkrue emnin me pikëpyetse në fund. Me gjithë këto kandrra që janë çue vrik në mugun e dendun të tranzicionit, beteja e kulturës asht e humbun përgjithmonë. Duhet nji vullnet i ri për të vërtetën dhe për të qenit të lirë. Ky vullnet asht lufta për kulturën, betejen e së cilës mtojmë me e nisë sot.

Kulturë s’do me thanë diplomë e kjo e fundit nuk asht nji medalje mirënjohjet për durimin e treguem gjatë viteve të shkollës. Kultura dhe dija janë punë e mund i pafund që kërkojnë puntorë të mirë e të ndershëm. Secili në fushën e në cakun e vet, me përvujtni e me guxim, duhet të ndezin at’ flakën spastruese që djeg e dlirë por edhe që nxehë e ndriçon shpirtnat dhe mendjet tona. A. N.

Lucia Nadin

Ndikimi i mitit të Skënderbeut në teatrin venedikas të ‘700

Abstract

Little is known about the influence of the myth of Skënderbeg on Venetian theatre in the 18th century. Widely known for having discovered the Statutes of Shkodër, historian Lucia Nadin in this paper focuses on the popularity that this myth enjoyed in Venice and Venetian territories.
The second part of her essay, on the other hand is devoted to Scanderbech Tragedy, by Dalmatian Trifon Smecchia. Recently discovered by Paolo Muner, the play witnesses the importance of the myth of Skënderbeg across all Venetian territories. Of Albanian descent, Trifon Smecchia, from Perast – back then part of Venetian territories – devoted this opera regia entirely to the figure and myth of Skënderbeg. The play was never printed, as the author was possibly thinking of making the plot more substantial and dynamic.

Italo Sarro

Disa vëzhgime rreth Regjimentit Mbretnor Maqedonas të Napolit

Abstract

The persisting rivalry between the Bourbons and the Most Serene Republic of Venice was once more expressed in 1735, when Charles III of Naples in an attempt to show the Venetian Senate his unlimited influence over the Albanians decided to establish the Royal Macedonian Battalion. This military formation was mainly made up of Albanians from the region of Himara.
Historian Italo Sarro reconstructs the different phases in the life of the battalion and its Albanian members, who earned a good name for themselves, especially in the battle of Velletri. Discharged without any good excuse and without having received the wages, some officers were, though, sent back home. Once back in homeland, the relatives of their soldiers accused them of having abandoned their sons to the mercy of fate. In order to be restored to their previous conditions and remunerated, the officers – under the constant threat of the relatives of their own soldiers – appealed to the Propaganda Fide in Rome to act as an intermediary and attain on their behalf the long-denied favours from the King of Naples.

Bardhyl Demiraj

Rishtarë shqiptarë në Kolegjin Ilirik të Loretos I. Përshkrim kulturor-historik

Abstract

The Illyrian College in Loreto (1580-1860) was one of those long-lived educational institutions which provided both clerical and intellectual education for Catholic clergy. Many of its priests were appointed to the Albanian Ecclesiastical Province and to the Shkup Archdiocese, thus spurring, though not directly perhaps, the cultivation of written Albanian.
In the first part of the extended study, “A Cultural and Historical Survey”, Shejzat 3-4, 2016, Prof. Demiraj centres around the circumstances which led to the foundation of this college and its teaching programmes (Ratio Studiorum) of the Jesuit Fathers. In fact, they ran it from 1580 to 1773. Other themes are that of everyday life in the college and further life and deeds of the Albanian seminarians.
In the second part, to be published in Shejzat 1-2, 2007, the author will be recounting on the life of 124 seminarians, mainly Albanians. Further bibliographical data will also be given spanning 1580-1860, in the hope that they will not be neglected in a possible future re-edition of the Albanian Encyclopaedic Dictionary (Vol. I, II, Tirana, 2008-2009).

Kurt Gostentschnigg

Krali kundër Pekmezit – Lufta në Komisinë Letrare Shqipe në Shkodër 1916–1918

Abstract

The Albanian Literary Commission, initiated by the Austro–Hungarian diplomat August Ritter von Kral, approved by the Austro–Hungarian 19th corps command on 30 June 1916 and established on 1 September 1916 in Shkodër, joined the major personalities of the Albanian literature of that time – like Aleksandër Xhuvani, Ndre Mjeda, Luigj Gurakuqi, Sotir Peci, Hil Mosi and Gjergj Fishta – and two foreign Albanologists – Maximilian Lambertz and Rajko Nachtigall –, in order to define a literary standard and orthographic rules for the Albanian language. The chairman of the commission was the Albanian linguist Gjergj Pekmezi who worked at the University and for the Foreign Ministry in Vienna.
In connection with the problem of the dialect there existed an inner conflict: one party around Kral and Lambertz wanted to create a unified literature language on the basis of the dialect of Elbasan; the other party around Pekmezi and Nachtigall advocated the coexistence of both great dialects Tosk and Gheg. The Foreign Ministry of Austria–Hungary, represented by Kral, pushed ahead with an accelerated agreement in favour of the its political objectives and to the disadvantage of the research, meanwhile Pekmezi, being torn between his positions both as scientific actor and political actor, would have preferred to fulfil the scientific demands, but in the end had to submit to the pressure from Vienna.

Majlinda Bregasi

Sintaksa e një radhe në bisedë – Njësitë përbërëse të radhës

Abstract

Conversation is a central activity to social life. Playing a key role in communication, conversation has shaped language structures. If, on the other hand we consider the assumption of the founders of the conversation analysis that the different language structures are exactly designed for the purpose of conversation, then an important area for study opens up to linguists.
The author’s focus in this paper is the syntax of turns in conversation. There are remarkable points of connection between the organization of turn construction units (TCU) in conversation and the syntax of a clause. Turn organization is interactionally sensitive to the topological syntactic description of the Albanian clausal structure. Specific parts of grammatical structure can be used by speakers to accomplish specific actions in a turn-taking system. So, parts of speech can be used by speakers as turn entries; to connect elements within a single TCU; to connect turns with each other, or to prompt a speaker to provide a sequential contribution. The analysis is based on the transcripts of television debates which the author published in 2015.

Emine Sadiku

Kombinimi i roleve semantike me funksionet sintaksore në foljet psikologjike

Abstract

One of the most important issues in discussion at present is the coordination between semantics and syntax. A series of theories centre around linguistic problems in which semantics encounters syntax. One of the most interesting issues in this field is the combination of semantic (thematic) roles with the syntactic function of sentence limbs. This paper deals with a specific case of combination which occurs in sentences containing psychological verbs. In such constructions we can question the 1:1 relation between syntax and semantics.
In a narrow sense, psychological verbs denote emotions, feelings. In this paper the author focuses on the concept of “prototypical feeling”, which, in turn, stems from the catalogue of seven basic emotions by P. Ekman. As Ekman puts in the category of prototypical feelings those feelings which are common to disparate countries and cultures, his concept also relates to the feelings of the Albanian worldview and their linguistic expressions. Furthermore, such verbs leave room for two obligatory arguments; one plays the role of the stimuli, the other the role of the experienced. The stimuli – as the cause of the state that is experienced by the experienced – can be a person, idea or object, whereas the experienced is always a human being.

Bashkim Shehu

Mesdheu si realitet dhe imagjinatë

Abstract

The Mediterranean region has traditionally been home to many cultures and civilisations. Living here has meant to act and interact with populations and nations.
Writer Bashkim Shehu deals in his article with the past and present situation of the Mediterranean culture and civilisations, paying special attention to the difference in the messages that they sent across in the past and at present. Shehu believes that Mediterranean culture resembles a mosaic where each tile plays a key role and forms part of the whole artwork. The author believes that the real challenge of the present day for the Mediterranean, however, is the transformation of the cultural and social landscape of the countries that constitute such culture.

Arben Ndreca

Osip Mandelshtam: Poeti kundër Stalinit

Abstract

Born to Jewish parents, Osip Mandelshtam was one of the most prominent Russian poets from the Silver Age. Mandelshtam is not only known because of his verses but also because of his tragic end. When the NKVD, Stalin’s secret service searched his flat in 1938– it was his second arrest – they found the poem We live without sensing the country beneath us which resulted in convicting him to imprisonment. A few months later the poet died in a gulag somewhere in Vladivostok and was thrown into a pit. Found during his first arrest in 1934, his other poem Wolf was no less original and powerful. In fact, it sounded like a conundrum to the police officer who came across it during the search.
Though famous, little is known about Osip Mandelshtam and his life and work in Albania, as he and his poems were banned not only in the URSS but in all former European socialist countries as well. However, these two poems have now been translated and any reader can have their say.

Përvjetor

On the 90th anniversary of scholar Willy Kamsi

Abstract

Shejzat this time pays tribute to Albanian historian and scholar Willy Kamsi on his 90th anniversary. Born on 17 Dec 1926 in Bari, Italy, while his parents were in political exile, he is son of Gjon Kamsi, one of the closest collaborators of Luigj Gurakuqi and an exponent of the Christian Democratic Party (Alb. Opozita) himself. Willy and his sister Myriam grew up with the long-cherished desire to see the homeland. When they finally returned in 1939, the family settled in Tirana. Though still in his teens, Willy Kamsi started working with Prof. Filip Fishta, Albanologist in the library of the Institute for Albanian Studies. Banished from Tirana in the aftermath, the family returned to its hometown, Shkodra. In fact, the Kamsi are descendants of the households Kambisi and Engjulli, native of Drishti and Shkodra who are both mentioned in many documents as early as the 15th century.
In Shkodra Willy Kamsi began work as librarian at the Institute Luigj Gurakuqi. In ten years the department of Albanology and Balkanology that he was so painstakingly taking care of became the hearth around which Albanologists got together. Though paranoia was rife on all sides, Willy Kamsi remained adamant in his scientific vocation and went on persuading offsprings of prominent families in Shkodra to contribute to the enrichment of the library with rare books and newspapers. Nobody can recall a harsh word ever passing his lips, not even when the pressure of the regime was unbearable.
After the fall of Communism, Willy Kamsi was appointed Ambassador of the Republic of Albania to the Holy See in 1993, the first of the democratic era.
While wishing to the author a long and healthy life,  Shejzat brings here three papers by Kamsi, hoping that the author will publish many other studies in the near future.

Willy Kamsi

«Cuneus Prophetarum» i Pjetër Bogdanit

Abstract

The paper revolves around Bogdani’s Cuneus Prophetarum (1685) and explains why it was published in Padua, not in Rome. After leaving Albania in 1685, Bogdani went to Padua, as there was residing Cardinal Gregorio Barbarigo. In fact, their friendship went as far as twenty years or so back when Bogdani had lived in Rome. By now Barbarigo was a  cardinal and had established a printing press in Padua where to publish books for the Catholic Church in the East (Albania was considered by Italians as part of eastern Europe.). It was, therefore, important that such books were laid out carefully and enriched with illustrations. This explains the exquisite taste for the engravings on copper plates embellishing Cuneus Prophetarum.
Very original, Bogdani’s Cuneus remains to this day a precious book in the genre of hagiography.

Willy Kamsi

Denk / Bdek

Abstract

Taking cue from a document from 1709 quoting another document from the 15th century with three Albanian names (Denku, Dimitri, Martusi) and comparing it with the tax register of Sanjak of Shkodra (1485) where the same names from the household Kamsi appear, the author focuses on the evolution of the Albanian names Denk and Bdek. The author diligently explains why these two names must have derived from the Latin name Dominicus, not from Benedictus. Supported by sufficient persuasive data, the phonetic evolution processes mentioned here are fundamental to proving that Denk is a form older than Bdek.

Willy Kamsi

Giammaria Biemmi dhe kritika

Abstract

Why has historian Giammaria Biemmi, author of History of Skanderbeg long been considered a forger? Why has his History been dismissed as entirely made up? In his essay, Kamsi maintains that Biemmi should be seriously taken in consideration, as the fact that we can not retrieve the Tivaras, the original source which Biemmi drew on, does not imply that Biemmi thought up all data on Skanderbeg. In fact, the dates and the years that he reports in his History have been used and considered correct by many a historian.

Res Inventae

Matteo Mandalà

Un nuovo manoscritto autografo di Gabriele Dara e la fase “preistorica” della redazione dell’Ultimo canto di Bala

Abstract

Ardian Ndreca

Në gjurmët e veprës «Sylva documentorum» të Át Camillo Libardi-t

Abstract

Franciscan father Camillo Libardi served as missionary in northern Albania for 45 years, until he was expelled in 1932 by the regime of King Zog. The main reason was the critical attitude of the Catholic clergy and, especially the Franciscans towards the policies that the king had been enacting. Soon after his return to Italy, Libardi published different books shedding light on the history and life of the Albanians.
His devotion to Albania and its inhabitants spurred him to undust and collect documents from various archives, both in Albania and abroad. The result of such impeccable work were three volumes of documents – mainly about the Franciscans in Albania – by the title of Sylva documentorum ad Albaniam spectantium,  which were never published. In fact, he sent his work to the Centre for Albanian Studies at the Royal Academy of Italy in 1939. Perhaps someone hampered the process of edition. Letters show that his folders were still here in 1943. From that year the three volumes disappeared and are now considered lost.

Archivum

Pushtimi i Shkodrës dhe Lufta e Pezës simbas dokumenteve italiane (A. Ndreca)

Mustafa Merlika - Kruja – Ahmet Zogu dhe çështja e Shën Naumit (E. Merlika)

Recensione

Musine Kokalari, "La mia vita universitaria. Memorie di una scrittrice albanese nella Roma fascista (1937-1941)", a cura di S. Ceglie e M. Geraci, con un saggio di V. Zhiti, Viella, Roma 2016, pp. 220, ISBN 978-88-6728-595-2. (M. Bova)

Blerina Suta, "Faqe të panjohura nga vepra e Pjetër Budit (1618-1622)", Onufri 2016, ISBN 978-9928-226-00-6 (G. Gurga)