Paraqitje / Introduction
Ky numër special i Shejzave përmbledh në vetvete aktet e kuvendit ndërkombëtar Symbiosis on the shores of the Adriatic Sea. Encounters and dialogues among cultures, që u mbajt në Zara të Kroacisë më 3-5 tetor 2019. Kuvendi u oganizue në bashkëpunim me Universitetin e Zarës dhe në vazhdën e kuvendeve që i kanë parapri, kishte si synim parësor gjallnimin e hapsinës së dialogut mes studiuesve shqiptarë, arbëreshë dhe të huej.
Theksi kësaj here ishte tek hapsina e përbashkët mes kulturave të Adriatikut dhe marrëdhanjet e tyne të hershme dhe të pandërpreme që kanë lanë shenja të dukshme në secilën prej tyne, tue pasunue njena tjetrën nëpërmjet dinamikash gjallnuese.
Sot ndodhemi përballë sfidash të reja që rrezikojnë kulturat e “vogla”, prandaj qëllimi i kuvendit dhe i kontributeve që shohin dritën këtu nuk ishte ai i inventarizimit të së kaluemes, por theksimi i faktit se vijojmë me bashkënda nji hapsinë që edhe sot mundet me qenë shujta e kulturave tona, në nji simbiozë krijuese vlerash që njikohsisht mundet me qenë edhe afruese mes popujve që jetojnë në brigjet e Adriatikut. Bilanci i së kaluemes na lejon me qenë në mënyrë të arsyeshme optimista për të ardhmen, tue mendue se të gjithë së bashku mund t’i përshtatemi kohëve të reja që shfaqen në horizont, dhe si pjesë përbasë e familjes së madhe europiane mund të japim shembullin e nji dialogut të thellë kulturor.
Jemi të bindun se intelektualët duhet të jenë të parët që të dialogojnë në hapsinën e Adriatikut dhe ma gjanë të Mesdheut. Kultura na lejon me krijue kushte bashkëpunimi të përhershme, të qëndrueshme dhe me pritshmëri të naltë. Besojmë se edhe aktet e këtij kuvendi që dalin në dritë tashti, kanë në vetvete këtë gjurme universale që asht shpresë për hapa të tjerë pozitiv.
Falenderime: Shejzat falenderojnë për kontributin konkret në organizimin e kuvendit Universitetin e Zarës, zëvendësrektoren prof. Nedjeljka Balić-Nizić dhe kolegen Andrijana Jusup Magazin, Ministrinë e Kulturës së Republikës së Shqipnisë, Shoqatën “Rrok Jakaj” dhe të gjithë artistat që morën pjesë në dy koncertet që iu ofruen pjesmarrësve dhe publikut zaratin.
Nji falenderim i ngrohtë i drejtohet edhe mbështetësve tanë të përhershëm, miqve: Nikolin Jakaj, Pandi Carapuli, Arjan Stajka, Pren Kçira, Valentina Gjoka, Ervin Gjadri që na mbështetën fuqimisht në realizimin dhe në ecjen mbarë të kuvendit.
The current issues of Shejzat-Pleiades are devoted to the proceedings of the International Conference Symbiosis on the shores of the Adriatic Sea. Encounters and dialogues among cultures, held in Zadar, (Cro.) 3-5 October 2019.
The conference was organised in conjunction with the University of Zadar. True to the tradition of the preceding conferences organised by Shejzat-Pleaides, its main purpose was to revive the cooperation and the dialogue among Albanian, Arbëresh and international scholars of Balkanology.
What the conference emphasised was the common ground of the different Adriatic cultures on which they have blossomed, their traditional and uninterrupted relations which have characterised and enriched them mutually.
At present new challenges are threatening small cultures, so the purpose of the conference as it can be seen from the proceedings published here was not to make a list of the achievements of the past but to emphasise that such cultures still share a common space which can once again nurture our cultures and foster a creative symbiosis of values which, in their turn, can bring closer the nations of the Adriatic area.
The results of the past can make us feel reasonably optimistic about the future, relying on the fact that all together can adapt to the new era heaving in sight. As part of the enlarged European family, our countries can forward examples of intense and deep cultural relationships to the generations yet to come.
Intellectuals, we believe, should be at the forefront of the dialogue in the Adriatic and in the Mediterranean area, as culture allows us to create conditions for a permanent, steady-growing and highly-promising cooperation. We are confident that the proceedings of the conference do bear such universally shared mark and give hope for other significant steps forward.
Acknowledgments: Shejzat-Pleiades wish to thank for providing to the organisation of the conference the University of Zadar, namely, vice rector prof. Nedjeljka Balić-Nižić, colleague Andrijana Jusup Magazin, as well as the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Albania, Association “Rrok Jakaj” and each one of the artists who performed in the two concerts held in the town of Zadar.
Also, special thanks go to our permanent backers, to the fellows of Shejzat: Messrs Nikolin Jakaj, Pandi Carapuli, Arjan Stajka, Pren Kçira, Mrs Valentina Gjoka, Ervin Gjadri who backed us in the organisation and the normal unfolding of the conference.
Flussi e migrazioni di religiosi albanesi a Venezia nel secolo XV e il loro inedito ruolo tra istanze di riforma religiosa e strategie politiche
Flows and migrations of Albanian clergymen to Venice in the 15th century. The unknown role played by bodies for the Church renovation and political strategies
Keywords: Adriatic area, the 14th and the 15th centuries, Venice, Albanian presbyters, Marinus Barletius.
Studying the presence of Albanian clergymen amongst the ranks of the Venetian clergy during the 15th century has led to unknown before and rather specific results. In the beginning, the exchange of clergymen between the two Adriatic coasts was direct and inspired by projects of ecclesiastical renovation set in the urban background of the turmoil caused by the Western Schism.
In addition, author Nadin thinks that the period of the intense migrations triggered by the progress of the Ottoman conquest in Europe must also be interpreted as part of shrewd plans devised by well-organised structures of Venetian politics.
Gli Albanesi in Istria (secc. XV-XVIII)
The Albanians in Istria from, 15th - 18th centuries.
Keywords: History of Istria, medieval Albanian migrations, social and economic aspects of Albanian migration.
Albanian emigration was a historic phenomenon which extended over a long period, and of which different countries of the inter-Adriatic area were the final destination. Besides different regions in present-day Italy, Istria as well constituted a destination. The Albanians arrived there at the end of the 15th century. According to documents from archives, the Istrian settlement displays the connotations of similar migrations – though the latter were much more complex – across the Italian peninsula. Documents reflect the common organisational skills of various groups of migrants.
Albanesi nello Stato pontificio e nell’Impero asburgico fra ’700 e ’800
Albanian refugees in Lazio and in Istria in chronicles and history.
Keywords: Pianiano, Albanian, Papal State, migration, Stefano Remani, Remagni.
The economic crisis which swept across Albania between the end of the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th century caused waves of migration. What exacerbated such crisis was the Ottoman conquest of the country. The new occupants did not merely aim at the complete subjugation of the Albanians but also pushed for their conversion into Islam.
In order to achieve their purpose, the Ottomans demolished churches, used their power and systematic violence against the Roman Catholic clergy and the believers. Another powerful weapon in their hand was taxation, at times unlawfully reiterated and very often at the discretion of the local Ottoman dignitaries. Many Albanians complied with such abuse and converted into Islam, others preferred to flee the country in search of liberty and a better life. However, this happened gradually spanning centuries of Ottoman dominion.
In his lecture, scholar Italo Sarro dwells on the detrimental journey of 32 households from Shkodra in 1756 which were greeted in Pianiano, in the Papal State and on the migration of another 18 households from Hoti. Forced by the ravaging wars in 1833 they demanded and attained the right to migrate to Istria, back then part of the Habsburg Empire.
Migrazioni albanesi verso Marche, Romagna e Abruzzo tra Medioevo ed età moderna
Albanian migrations towards Romagna, Marche and Abruzzo between the 14th and the 16th centuries.
Keywords: Albanian migration, Marche, ethnic and linguistic colonies, Alain Ducellier, integration.
After the prolonged plague epidemics of the second half of the 14th century, a continuous migration flow started from the Balkan peninsula, and Albania too, towards Italy. In its beginning, the Italian regions targeted were Puglia, Abruzzo, Marche and Romagna. Later on, other flows would head for the Ionian coast of Italy and Sicily.
After having analysed the features and the peculiarities of the Albanian migrations, this paper focuses on the integration of the newly-arrived. At the end, special attention is devoted to the strategies of adaptation favouring the integration of the Albanian migrants in the Italian society in the 15th and the 16th centuries.
Caratteristiche dell’albanese dell’Istria attraverso l’analisi dei manoscritti di Pietro Stancovich (1771-1851)
Features of the Albanian dialect of Istria in the manuscripts of Pietro Stancovich (1771-1851)
Keywords: Multilingual Istria, Albanian Ghegh in Istria, Pietro Stancovich, parable of the prodigal son in Albanian.
Manuscripts of Istrian-born scholar Pietro Stancovich (1771-1851) are treasured in the library of the University of Pola. The few linguistic records of the Albanian spoken in Istria that the scholar noted down have been analysed in order to highlight the characteristics of such Albanian dialect. Still alive around the 1850s, the Albanian community in Parenzo (Cro. Poreč), Istria was well-known.
From the analysis of the phonetic system of the evangelical parable of the Prodigal Son written in Istrian Albanian, and from the analysis of the lexemes recorded comparatively with those in other languages (in a dictionary which remained incomplete), we might track back the origin of this Albanian community to Hoti, generally speaking Malësia e Madhe, on the border between Albania and present-day Montenegro.
Dinamika gjuhësore në zonën e Adriatikut mes shekujve XVIII-XIX: mes diglosish, dygjuhësish dhe synimit të gjuhëve kombëtare
Dynamics of language in the area of the Adriatic Sea between the 18th and the 19th centuries. Diglossia, bilingualism and the quest for national languages.
Keywords: Italian language, Venetian dialects, Ionian Isles, Foscolo, diglossia, bilingualism, Corfu, Austro-Hungarian empire, Slavic Balkan area, Albania, Tommaseo, Solomòs.
Not surprisingly, in the 18th century the area of the Adriatic Sea was still an area of important encounters and where ideas were exchanged. More than a geographical area, the Adriatic Sea and the countries lulled by its waves are to be considered as a sort of situation rather than a mere area of planet Earth. Such encounters generated in time a sort of cultural koiné in this area.
In his essay, Prof. Banfi centres around the pre-Romantic and Romantic debate in Italy about the Italian language. As such debate formed part of the Adriatic identity, it influenced the rise and the development of the ideas and the ideology of languages in the would-be Balkan states, especially of the Southern Slavs, Greece and Albania. Prof. Banfi clears up that such influence does not contemplate nationalism in the present-day meaning of this word but only in a more general national awakening of each of the countries bordering on the Adriatic Sea.
Andrey N. Sobolev
Albanian and Slavic symbiosis through the lens of the Balkan contact linguistics
Keywords: Albanian dialects, Montenegrin dialects, Albanian-Slavic Symbiosis, Albanian-Slavic language contact, Balkan Sprachbund.
The paper deals with the mechanisms and outcomes of the language contacts between the local dialects of Albanian and Slavic in the framework of some major theoretical issues of the Balkan contact linguistics. The zones of ongoing contact in East Albania (Gollobordë area) and South Montenegro (Mrkovići area) uncover special mutual contact-induced changes in all structural levels of Albanian and South Slavic dialects. Contact induced change variation through time and space reveals the general paths of language convergence in the Balkans and the restrictions that apply to that convergence.
José M. Floristán
Estradiotes albaneses al servicio de los Austrias españoles (II): familias Alambresi, Basta, Capuzzimadi
Keywords: Albanian families Alambresi, Basta and Capuzzimadi; Spanish Habsburgs; 16th and 17th centuries; stradioti.
The aim of this paper (second of a series) is to provide the albanologists with historical data concerning the life and career of prominent Albanian families that were at the service of the Spanish Habsburgs during the 16th and 17th centuries. The news are original, collected from the General Archives of Simancas (Valladolid, Spain), the Histórico Nacional de Madrid and the Archivio di Stato di Napoli, and most of them unknown till now. This second paper is devoted to several members of the Albanian families Alambresi, Basta and Capuzzimadi.
José M. Floristán
Una petición de ayuda militar de los habitantes de Albania, Bosnia Hercegovina, Servia y Montenegro a Felipe III de España (1612-1614)
An appeal of the people of Albania, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro to the Spanish king Philip III for military help (1612-1614).
Keywords: Albania, Bosnia, Giovanni Renesi, Spanish King Philip III, Msgr Pietro Giorgio Odeschalchi.
In 1612 the bishop of Vigevano, Lombardy forwarded to the Spanish court in Madrid an appeal for military support he had received through the Albanian captain Giovanni Renesi from the people of Albania, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro for an uprising against the Turkish Ottomans. Such appeal was a continuation of the embassies which had been already sent to several Christian princes in the first decade of the 17th century. Patriarch Jovan II of Peć and the voïvode Grdan of Nikšić were apparently the main masterminds behind this plan.
Historia e kishës shqiptare në një përmbledhje shënimesh të Karol Pooten-it. Figura prelatësh dhe provinca të rëndësishme kishtare
The history of the Albanian Catholic Church in the notes of Msgr Karl Pooten. Prelates and important ecclesiastic provinces.
Keywords: Church history, history of writing, ecclesiastical hierarchy, philology of handwritten texts, early Albanian texts, Msgr Karl Pooten.
This paper focuses on the contribution of Msgr Karl Pooten to the identification of the dioceses and to the administrative subdivision of the Albanian Catholic Church. Such notes represent a chronological slice of the history of the Albanian church. They touch on very important events in the life of the local church including synods, councils and the pastoral and intellectual activity of different prelates. Cited by Msgr Pooten, prelates such as Pjetër Budi, Frang Bardhi or Pjetër Bogdani marked the history of the Albanian Catholic church after the death of Gjergj Kastrioti Scanderbeg.
Another outstanding prelate that Msgr Pooten focused on in his notes was Msgr Vincent Zmajević. Apostolic visitor to Albania and supervisor of the Council of Albania (1703), the figure of Zmajević is one of the most cited in the notes of Msgr Pooten along with additional information about his origin, the family he was born into etc.
Author Paci maintains that the notes by Pooten deserve to be studied more in-depth because of their wealth of information about names of places and the register of the language used.
Persida Lazarević Di Giacomo
Di “quella coraggiosa nazione e di quelle meravigliose terre”: Dositej Obradović e gli albanesi
With the people of Hormovë: The encounter of Dositej Obradović with Albania and the Albanians
Keywords: Dositej Obradović, Hormova, Orthodox monasticism, South Albania.
In the fifth epistle of his autobiography Život i priključenija (1788) – Life and Adventures, Serbian illuminist Dositej Obradović (1739-1811) recalls the making of landfall on the coast of Epirus of the vessel he was on. Once landed, he started making acquaintance of the people of Hormovë and got to know better the geographical area. Of such experience, Obradović gives a succinct and varied but not prejudiced description. His encounter with the Albanians witnesses to the intercultural relationships among populations in the Balkan peninsula in the second half of the 18th century.
Il generale Alberto Pariani e il suo archivio in Archivio di Stato di Venezia
Italian general Alberto Pariani (1876-1955) and his personal archive regarding Albanian history
Keywords: Gen. Alberto Pariani, Fascism, Venice Archive State, Second World War.
Alberto Pariani (1876-1955) was a high-ranking Italian military officer who fought both in the First and the Second World Wars. After the First World War he was assigned different tasks to Albania including that of the re-organisation of the army of the small Balkan country.
From 1936 to 1939 he marshalled the Headquarters of the Italian Army and was Deputy War Minister. One of the main collaborators of Benito Mussolini, he carried out a deep reform in the Italian Army. After being discharged on the verge of the outbreak of the Second World War, Pariani was called back into duty by Mussolini in the spring of 1943 and appointed Viceroy to Albania.
Because of having joined the Italian Social Republic, he was convicted in the aftermath for collaboration with the Fascists but then acquitted. Soon after that, he devoted himself to the local politics of Malcesine in the province of Verona. Pariani led this township from 1952 until his death. In 1971 his personal archive was handed over to the State Archive of Venice as a bequest. Enriched by notes reflecting personal considerations on historical events, his diaries mirror the activity of this important figure in the Italian Army.
Krijimtaria e Shime Deshpalit – kujtesë dhe kujtim i një diaspore
The works of Shime Deshpali – remembrance and memory of a diaspora
Keywords: Arbanas, Shime Deshpali, Albanian Awakening, Albanian Literature.
Diasporas constitute an invaluable literary and cultural mulch of the Albanian literature. In the case of the Arbëresh in Italy, for instance, their legacy provided the necessary ground for the beginning of the Albanian Awakening. However, the Arbanas in Zara constitute a different facet of the same phenomena. Though dating back to as far as about 300 years ago, the literary works created in this milieu only appeared in the second half of the 20th century.
Musician, poet and writer Shime Deshpali from the Arbanas, along with playwright Josip Rela best represent such diaspora in the Albanian literature by bringing alive the spoken Albanian of Arbanas mirrored from the detailed research in the spiritual and psychological condition of the Albanian community in Zara.
An educated musician, Deshpali’s poetry and his prose as well lead towards an inner musicality. It manifests a unique and unparalleled potential of the Albanian language thanks to the subdialect of Arbanas. So Deshpali’s works stand out among other works in the Albanian literature in virtue of their permeating musical undertones of the fragile Arbanas subdialect asserting the collective memory of this diaspora.
Skënderbeu në përmbledhjen “Razgovor Ugodni” të poetit kroat Andrija Kaçiq-Mioshiq dhe kontributi i këtij në letërsinë epike të sllavëve jugorë
Scanderbeg in the Pleasant Talk of Slavic People and the immense contribute of Fr Andrija Kačić-Miošić to the epic literature of the Southern Slavs
Keywords: Razgovor Ugodni, Kačić-Miošić, Barletius, Scanderbeg, Castriota, Filip Lastrić Oćevac, Albanian literature, Albanian stradioten, Zadar.
Published first in 1756 and re-edited in 1759, Razgovor ugodni slovinskoga naroda remains to this day the most important work by Fr Andrija Kačić-Miošić. The title introduces the theme of folk songs and tales. However, in the second edition of this collection, among others, a large number of songs is devoted to Gjergj Kastrioti – Scanderbeg, a real historical figure.
Widely celebrated in the Venetian, Italian and Spanish territories, the figure of Scanderbeg became now very popular in the literature of the Southern Slavs as well – a debt largely owed to Kačić-Miošić.
The lecture attempts to focus on the reasons why Kačić-Miošić chose to bring Scanderbeg’s deeds alive. It also explores the events and the data that possibly rekindled and maintained high the interest of the Croatian poet in this prince and the resistance of the Albanians against the Ottomans.
Tri dorëshkrime në greqisht në AQSH, tregues të iluminizmit evropian në Lindjen osmane të shek. XVIII
Three manuscripts in Greek from the 18th century residing in the AQSH (Central State Archive in Tirana) as indicators of European Enlightenment in the Ottoman East
Keywords: Greek Manuscripts, Central State Archive of Tirana, Enlightenment, Teodor Anastas Kavaljoti, Jorgo Sugdhuri, Anastas Papavasilopuli.
Studying manuscripts in Greek from the 18th century at the Central State Archive in Tirana can be highly beneficial to understanding the dynamics of the development of several intricate cultural movements in the Balkan peninsula during the Ottoman rule.
This lecture focuses on three authors from that time. The first is Teodor Anastas Kavaljoti, author of Physics (Φυσική πραγματεία) and Metaphysics (Μεταφυσική), both forming part of the Codex Beratinus. The diffusion of Kavaljoti’s codices in Romania, Albania and Greece demonstrate the popularity of the New Academy of Voskopoja.
Not less important is Introduction to Logic (Εἰσαγωγὴ Λογικῆς) by Jorgo Sugdhuri. Published in Vienna (1792), this work is incomplete in the Codex Beratinus. The ubication of copies of this book speak loudly about the diffusion and the importance it enjoyed.
After this work, in the Codex Beratinus follows the General Compendium of the Application of Logic by Anastas Papavasilopuli (Σύνοψις γενικὴ τῆς λογικῆς ἕλξεως). The purpose of this book sprang from the conviction that the diffusion of knowledge along with philosophical thoughts would have a bearing on the life of the individual and of the community. Transposing such ideas into the Ottoman territories did in fact influence the formation of the nations in the Balkan region after the long Sultanic isolation from the rest of Europe.
The lecture highlights the most salient features of each of the abovementioned works.
The Preservation of an Ancient Tradition in the Arbëresh Ecclesiastical and Secular Musical Practice and Father Lorenzo Tardo
Keywords: Classical Byzantine Music, Arbëresh, Father Lorenzo Tardo, Abbey of Grottaferrata, Ison.
Arbëresh, or Italo-Albanians, are the Albanian-speaking population in parts of southern Italy, the descendants of the 15th century refugees from the Balkans. Maintaining their native culture and language, they now populate about 50 villages in Southern Italy. The oral tradition of the Arbëresh liturgical chants it can be said that it is based on the classical Byzantine, medieval style of chant, without “heterogeneous influxes”, as Father Lorenzo Tardo of the Abbey of Grottaferrata puts it, or other Ottoman expressive devices and musical effects such as “lamenting trills, guttural pulsations, nasal paraphoniae and nostalgic dirges” (Tardo 1938, 100). The Arbëresh possess a considerable patrimony of this repertoire, which even today is still transmitted orally. At the present time the liturgy is sung in Albanian and Italian as well as the traditional Greek. In order to make the understanding of the text of the liturgy easier, in 1968 it was decreed that the use of the Albanian language should be substituted (although not totally) for the Greek language.
Il diritto consuetudinario albanese tra ricerca scientifica, finzione letteraria e rappresentazione mediatica
Albanian Customary Law in scientific research, literary fiction and media portrayal
Keywords: Albanian Customary Law, Kanun of Leke Dukagjini, sworn virgins, national stereotypes.
The Code of Albanian Customary Laws has drawn the attention of foreign and Albanian scholars for the past one hundred years. Inspired by different interests, scholars have approached this subject in different ways using various studying methods. Such studies range from the ethno-cultural and anthropological approaches of Positivist descent to the politically correct Gender Studies of the present day. At the same time, literature, cinema, and theatre have highlighted specific features of the Albanian Customary Law revealing a taste for the exotic. The most salient are undoubtedly the vendetta and the sworn virgins, upon which novel plots and films have been based. The author analyses in this paper the effects of such approaches and tries to measure the distance between the aesthetical representation of these phenomena and their anthropological aura.